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Archives signNewsletter Archive

 

This page serves as the repository for all of the newsletters published in the past on this web site, starting with the first issue in July, 2011. Quite often, the articles summarized in these publications become suddenly relevant when the encouraging results summarized therein become a full-blown new treatment a few months or years later. Also, most of this kind of information doesn't expire or become irrelevant if it isn't current at a given time.

This is why I decided to collect this archive and display it in the manner it is. It was recently determined that, when searching lists for specific words, the use of colored keywords is faster and much easier on your eyes than if the text is all the same shade.

Shortcuts to Prior Years
Note: All archived newsletters open in a new tab/window.
Newsletter (& link)
Selected Topics
Vol. V, No. 10 - October 2015
  • A listing of the illnesses that commonly occur along with CRPS
  • Neurontin has been found to cause anaphylaxis in a small number of patients
  • Plamsa exchange is a new therapy to treat CRPS
  • Learn the difference between strains of cannabis - sativa, indica, and hybrids
  • A new study shows that daily use of cannabis for a year has no deleterious effects
  • The seven stages of grief/acceptance of living with chronic pain
  • How emotions can be reflected in sites of pain, following our meridians
Vol. V, No. 9 - September 2015
  • Mixed Experiences and Perceptions of Psychological Treatment for Chronic Pain
  • Non-drug Therapies May Be Most Effective Treatments for Fibromyalgia Pain
  • Intractable pain may find relief in tiny gold rods
  • An excellent, detailed review on most aspects of ketamine and its applications
  • Debate Grows over Epidural Spinal Steroid Injections
  • Intensive Interdisciplinary Pain Treatment of Children With Chronic Pain
  • Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems
Vol. V, No. 8 - August 2015
  • Plasma Exchange May Be Effective Treatment for CRPS
  • DEA 'Pill Mill' Crackdown May Be Causing An Unintended Consequence
  • ‘Amazing’ New Stem Cell Treatment for Neuropathy
  • The Chronic Pain that Won’t Go Away
  • Ultrasound cuts healing time of chronic wounds by 30 percent
  • Key mechanism that causes neuropathic pain found
  • Marijuana Research Just Got a Green Light From the Obama White House
Vol. V, No. 7 - July 2015
  • An Open-label Pilot Trial of Ibandronate for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • The successful use of pamidronate in an 11-year-old girl with CRPS
  • Bisphosphonates beyond their anti-osteoclastic properties
  • Clinical development of neridronate: potential for new applications
  • CRPS/RSD and Neuropathic Pain: Role of Intravenous Bisphosphonates as Analgesics
  • Brain Alterations and Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Water Immersion-Induced Skin Wrinkling Test in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Vol. V, No. 6 - June 2015
  • CRPS in a 15-year-old girl successfully treated with continuous epidural anesthesia
  • Complex regional pain syndrome - An optimistic perspective
  • Finding the balance in complex regional pain syndrome - Expertise, optimism, and evidence
  • Stimulation of Dorsal Root Ganglia for the Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Noninvasive Treatments for Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Diurnal and Nocturnal Skin Temperature Regulation in Chronic CRPS
  • Ketamine as Adjunctive Anesthesia in Refractory CRPS Patients: A Case Series
Vol. V, No. 5 - May 2015
  • The Role of Opioids in the Treatment of Chronic Pain
  • Polypharmacy and Chronic Pain: Harm Exposure Is Not All about the Opioids
  • Effect of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Sensory Characteristics
  • Analgesic efficacy of opioids in chronic pain
  • Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH)
  • Exercise, Not to Exercise, or How to Exercise in Patients With Chronic Pain?
  • Variability in Response to Drugs
Vol. , No. 4 - April 2015
  • Low-Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain
  • Trends in Opioid Analgesic Abuse and Mortality in the United States
  • Design and in vivo evaluation of oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release tablets
  • A Systematic Review of Ketamine for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Suicidal ideation and behavior associated with antidepressant medications
  • Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the visual analogue scale
  • Constipation: pathophysiology and management
Vol. V, No. 3 - March 2015
  • CRPS patients show little to no placebo effects
  • An excellent, 24-page review of CRPS, its symptoms, therapies, etc.
  • Opioids are much more effective when combined with cannabis, say Australian researchers
  • A great review called "CRPS _ An Optimistic Perspective"
  • Oxycodone and morphine were equally effective against chronic cancer pain
  • Intranasal ketamine very efficacious for breakthrough pain, esp. combined with midazolam (Versed®)
  • Very good, 14-page review on spinal cord stimulation (SCS)
Vol. V, No. 2 - February 2015
  • Ketamine has shown even greater promise against depression as against CRPS.
  • Warm water baths are more effective than neural stimulation
  • Pain catastrophizing - assuming the worst - results in greater perceived pain
  • For dealing with chronic pain, mindfulness is superior to distraction, it's been discovered
  • Resveratrol decreases the development of opioid tolerance!
  • Opioids have been found *not* to interfere with memory or recall
  • Trends in strong opioid prescribing, in the US and UK
Vol. V, No. 1 - January 2015
  • The risk factors for developing CRPS following a forearm fracture
  • Epidural blocks have been extended to the thoracic vertebrae
  • Memantine (Namenda®) found to successfully treat fibromyalgia
  • Noninvasive treatments for CRPS identified for pediatric patients
  • "Medication Overuse Headache" described as the pain occurring by using too many headache drugs
  • Mechanism of warm water baths relieving allodynia pain has been explained
  • Antidepressants can cause initial suicidal ideation, even if not prescribed for depression
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Vol. IV, No. 12 - December 2014
  • A systematic review of epidemiological studies
  • Peripheral nervous system origin of phantom limb pain
  • Human models of pain for the prediction of clinical analgesia
  • Psychosocial factors and risk of chronic widespread pain
  • Early transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TMS) reduces hyperalgesia
  • Spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain: current perspectives
  • A Pain Research Agenda for the 21st Century
Vol. IV, No. 11 - November 2014
  • Treatment-induced alterations in functional connectivity in pediatric CRPS
  • Diagnosis, mechanisms and treatment of CRPS
  • Brain mediators of the effects of noxious heat on pain
  • Relationships Between Psychological Factors, Pain, and Disability in CRPS
  • Rational Pain Management in CRPS
  • RSD-Like Syndrome, Possibly Caused By Aripiprazole, in an Adolescent Patient
  • Marijuana's long-term effects on the brain demonstrated
Vol. IV, No. 10 - October 2014
  • Efficacy of memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia
  • Thoracic Sympathetic Block for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I
  • Substance use in children of parents with chronic pain
  • Complex regional pain syndrome and psychological distress
  • Suicide Facts at a Glance - a nice handout from the CDC
  • Pain Reduces Sexual Motivation in Female But Not Male Mice
  • Mechanism-based treatment in complex regional pain syndromes
Vol. IV, No. 9 - September 2014
  • Several articles on the dermatological involvement in CRPS patients, including the next three:
  • The use of honey as an antibacterial agent, as has been done since antiquity
  • Sensitization seems to be activated by norepinephrine release during sympathetic stimulation
  • CRPS causes Cutaneous Immune Response, in which injuries become inflammed very easily
  • An analysis of suicide risk factors for people afflicted with CRPS
  • Great editorial on the benefits of medicinal marijuana
  • A possible clinical marker for CRPS involves a protein used in bone reconstruction
Vol. IV, No. 8 - August 2014
  • Excellent review of the disastrous war on drugs, by the ACLU
  • An extremely thorough review of neuropathic pain - 42pp, with 342 references!
  • The pathophysiology of pain - how it is generated and propagated through the body
  • A report on the reversal of a case of CRPS2 - very unusual!
  • An MS patient who developed CRPS; the Dx and Tx were both fast, and the RSD resolved completely
  • A Netherlands group says that for some RSD cases, sympathectomy is a viable option
  • The Work. Comp. guidelines for WA state concerning the Dx of CRPS
Vol. IV, No. 7 - July 2014
  • This issue starts four years of the newsletter!
  • The use of cannabis for management of chronic pain
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation for Intractable Chronic Pain
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - Clinical Pathway for Work-Related Injury
  • Cytochrome P450 Drug Interactions Table
  • Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for CRPS Type I
Vol. IV, No. 6 - June 2014
  • The endocannabinoid system, which allows us to be affected by cannabis-derived drugs
  • Two excellent reviews of CRPS/RSD, its treatment, new insights into its mechanism
  • Preventing CRPS development after surgery
  • CRPS Dx via pressure points, similar to those used for fibromyalgia
  • Recent advances in imaging pain and inflammation
  • Value of psychophysical assessment in deciding how to treat CRPS
  • Virtual body-swapping via VR to correct body perception dysfunction
Vol. IV, No. 5 - May 2014
  • Several excellent comprehensive reviews of CRPS/RSD
  • CRPS/RSD as a unique type of autoimmune disorder
  • A teenaged girl developed CRPS after being hit on her face by a snowball
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) works for CRPS due to NMDA receptor antagonism
  • 3D images of bone architecture allow prediction of who will develop CRPS-caused osteoporosis
  • Large study casts doubt on efficacy of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids
  • After a minor DNA modification, rats' pain could be controlled with light of appropriate wavelength
Vol. IV, No. 4 - April 2014
  • The effects of medical marijuana laws on crime - not surprisingly, there was no correlation
  • A 288-page book called "Chronic Pain - A Primer for Physicians", which should answer your questions
  • The need for increased attention to psychiatric symptoms in CRPS is highlighted, at last
  • CRPS Slideshow - a great, 48-slide, pdf-formatted summary of the disease
  • A concise review of using intrathecal drug pumps for relieving intractable pain
  • Neuropathic pain in children - a concise review of the differences between child and adult CRPS
  • Correlation of (the lack of) activity with muscle atrophy in CRPS patients
Vol. IV, No. 3 - March 2014
  • Unintentional exposure to cannabis by children in medical marijuana states
  • Botox as a treatment of CRPS - nice overall summary
  • Activity and Muscle Atrophy Changes a study done on rats
  • The effects of CRPS-1 on brain structure - an fMRI study that shows the changes that occur
  • 1H-NMR metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid in CRPS patients
  • Health-related quality of life in 975 patients with CRPS - a huge, multicenter study from the Netherlands
  • Myopathy in CRPS1
Vol. IV, No. 2 - February 2014
  • Neuropathic Pain - Diagnosis and Treatment - excellent review
  • Pain-Related Fear and Disability: their interrelationship in CRPS folks
  • Neuropathic Pain and CRPS In Children - great, 25-pg slideshow
  • Neuropathic pain in children, highlighting the difference between this and adult CRPS
  • Calmare® Therapy Gets Favorable Medicare Ruling; should make it much more available
  • Intrathecal Therapy for Chronic Pain: Current Trends and Future Needs
  • CRPS Type I Affects Brain Structure in Prefrontal and Motor Cortex
Vol. IV, No. 1 - January 2014
  • Muscle Relaxant Effects of Intramuscular Magnesium Sulphate
  • Diversion Following Reformulation of Ext.-Release Oxycodone in 2010
  • Changes in the volume of the brain's gray matter as a function of long chronic pain
  • Motives for Medical Misuse of Prescription Opioids Among Adolescents
  • Remarkably Low Opioid Abuse in Pain Patients
  • The Road toward Fully Transparent Medical Records
  • Deconstructing sex differences in pain sensitivity
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Vol. III, No. 12 - December 2013
  • A new fentanyl nasal spray for breakthrough pain
  • Pain Exposure PT, renamed Pain Acceptance PT, gaining popularity
  • Skin irritation causes analgesia on most of the same side of the body
  • A new osteoporosis drug - neridronate - found to cure CRPS1 in trial!
  • CRPS was caused by long, protracted labor in 28-yr old woman
  • The rest of this issue features a series of five papers documenting the intense synergism between THC and opioid drugs. This mutual interaction has many potentially important and exciting clinical possibilities.
Vol. III, No. 11 - November 2013
  • Ketamine in Pain Management - a new, complete review
  • Opioid withdrawal aborted by new NMDAR antagonist
  • Ketamine stops recalcitrant depression in a matter of minutes
  • Evaluation of a prototype tool for communicating body perception disturbances in CRPS
  • Analysis of the toxin from a poison centipede yields new analgesic
  • New data in the endocannabinoid system that explains cannabis' systemic effects
Vol. III, No. 10 - October 2013
  • New CDC report on antibiotic resistance
  • Several papers on the mind-body connection
  • Chap. 1 of RSDSA's new "Treatment Guidelines"
  • A proposal for a new CRPS subgroup, corresponding to the old Stage 3
  • Is CRPS a vitamin K-dependent entity?
  • A proposal for a new definition for neuropathic pain
Vol. III, No. 9 - September 2013
  • a review article on osteoporosis in men with CRPS
  • an article tracing the various names of CRPS through the years
  • the use of Botox® in the Tx of CRPS
  • the amazing ability of Botox® to lessen opioid tolerance, & increase morphine's strength
  • a review of IV infusions in Tx of chronic pain
  • a Phase I trial of ketamine for children with CRPS
  • a huge review from Cochrane on statistically valid studies involving CRPS
  • a comparison of the hot vs. cold manifestations of CRPS
  • another indictment against using opioids for chronic, noncancer pain
  • total cure of CRPS with immunoglobulin in a 19-yr-old
  • a modified type of MRI can be used to accurately measure pain levels
  • a report indicates that SCS should be considered much earlier than usual
  • a review of alternative types of bodywork and their use against CRPS
  • an excellent review of the psychological factors implicit in CRPS
Vol. III, No. 7 - July 2013
  • Different effects from methadone stereoisomers
  • Two excellent reviews of CRPS/RSD
  • A personal story of a physician with CRPS and his problems
  • A review of continuous nerve blocks in the Tx of CRPS
  • A new sublingual form of Suboxone® now available
  • Elderly patients with opioid scripts tend to fall more than others, but....
  • A single dose of Ritalin® can restore equilibrium to patients with somnolence
Vol. III, No. 6 - June 2013
  • Drugs in Development for Opioid-Induced Constipation
  • Inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome
  • Opioid Pharmacology and Considerations in Pain Management
  • Pain, Heat, and Emotion with Functional MRI
  • Should Pot Be Legal?
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation as Treatment for CRPS Should Be Considered Earlier
  • Hypogonadism in Men With Chronic Pain
Vol. III, No. 5 - May 2013
  • Hand clenching as a memory aid
  • Transdermal Buprenorphine Versus Transdermal Fentanyl
  • Inflammation Continues in Chronic Pain Patients
  • Prescription of Opioids for Chronic Nonmalignant Pain by Australian G.P.s
  • Exploratory study on the efficacy of reflexology for pain threshold and tolerance
  • The Hopelessness of RSD (poem) - Superlative!
Vol. III, No. 4 - April 2013
  • Ketamine as a Potential Rapid-Acting Antidepressant
  • A new method to accurately Dx whether central sensitization has occurred
  • Several articles on the state of opioid prescribing:
  • An excellent commentary on "Challenges of Epidemiological Evidence"
  • WHO guidelines on treating children with chronic pain
  • A letter from FDA to all physicians who prescribe controlled substances
  • How the FDA will use their "Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)" with opioids
Vol. III, No. 3 - March 2013
  • Herbal Therapies for the Relief of Pain, as a very useful chart
  • Considerations in selecting rapid-onset opioids for the management of breakthrough pain
  • Identifying Psychological Risk Factors for Pediatric Chronic Postsurgical Pain
  • Opioid-Induced Sexual Dysfunction: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment
  • Coping with chronic CRPS: advice from patients for patients
  • Twelve Steps for Chronic Pain Recovery - based on the AA model
  • Drug Agency Recommends Lower Doses of Sleep Aids for Women - esp. Ambien
Vol. III, No. 2 - February 2013
  • Transdermal Buprenorphine Versus Transdermal Fentanyl for chronic noncancer pain
  • State Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers
  • Efficacy and Safety of Ketamine in Patients with CRPS - A Systematic Review
  • Reliability of four experimental mechanical pain tests in children
  • Treatment of Chronic, Intractable Pain With a Conventional Implantable Pulse Generator
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Distributing Naloxone to Heroin Users for Lay Overdose Reversal
  • Opioids on Trial – Part 2 - the story of the dangerous PROP petition
Vol. III, No. 1 - January 2013
  • A Pain-Drug Champion Has Second Thoughts (by Dr. Russell Portenoy)
  • A Study to Find Whether Vitamin C Can Lessen the Chances for CRPS after Fractures
  • The AAPM's response to the PROP Petition Currently Accepting Comments
  • Optimism Lowers Pain! A study has proven what's intuitively rather obvious
  • Morphine and Buprenorphine have equivalent activity against pain and hyperalgesia-induced pain
  • FDA Unveils Tamper-Resistant Opioid Plan
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Vol. II, No. 12 - December 2012
  • Truly excellent 15 minute video produced by ABC News in Australia in 2009
  • "Attempts to generalize aberrant drug-related behaviors (ADRBs)"
  • Several articles on the use of opioids for non-cancer long term chronic pain
  • 216-Page Guideline for the above; an evidence-based review that worth st least skimming
  • Another Resource Guide; this one includes non-traditional treatments - great - 104pp
  • Retroactive study showing the low incidence of addiction among opioid patients
Vol. II, No. 11 - November 2012
  • Sympathetic Nervous System Info Site
  • Development of dependence following opioid treatment
  • (+)-Naloxone reverses chronic neuropathic pain models in rats
  • Opioid Antagonists in Pain Management
  • Opioid analgesics less addictive than feared?
  • Ketamine therapy - excellent video covering many issues involved in ketamine therapy
  • RSD/CRPS in children - wonderful video, with animations, explaining the special challenges of children who contract RSD/CRPS
Vol. II, No. 10 - October 2012
  • ACPA Resource Guide To Chronic Pain Medication & Treatment (104pp) available!
  • PCP Attitudes about Opioid Prescribing after REMS
  • Is TENS Just a Placebo for Chronic Pain?
  • Non-conscious activation of placebo and nocebo pain responses - sounds impossible!
  • Biological, clinical, and ethical advances of placebo effects - a new attitude
  • Symptoms and signs of central sensitization in patients with low back (leg) pain
  • Pathophysiology of the Spreading of CRPS Revisited: A Case Report
Vol. II, No. 9 - September 2012
  • Coffee intake and development of pain during computer work
  • Pharmacology of Opioids in the Treatment of Chronic Pain
  • Scientific evidence for central sensitization in CFS
  • Postsurgical Opioid Use – Going Beyond Pain?
  • Sex Differences in Long-term Opioid Use
  • Oxycodone - an excellent outline of the drug, its actions, metabolism, etc.
  • Opioid receptors - a 9-pg summary of the various opioid receptors, actions, etc.
Vol. II, No. 8 - August 2012
  • HCV Screening Urged for All Persons Aged 47-67
  • Opioids on Trial, But Where’s the Evidence?
  • Group Petitions FDA to Change Opioid Label ("PROP" petition)
  • Kolodny Responds to UPDATES on PROP Petition
  • Efficacy of Outpatient Ketamine Infusions in Refractory Chronic Pain Syndromes
  • Opioid rotation with extended-release opioids: where should we begin?
  • Association Between Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Function Over 20 Years
Vol. II, No. 7 - July 2012
  • The effects of immunomodulating drugs on CRPS-1 inflammation
  • After a bone fracture, 7% of individuals develop CRPS which did not resolve after 1 yr
  • An analysis of the contracts that so many PMPs and others use - positive & negative
  • Suicidality in Patients with Acute and Chronic Pain
  • The first study to identify errors in self-perception by CRPS patients
  • Similar to above, seeking deficits in higher-order cortical functions
  • A 12-pg guide to oral methadone dosing, reprinted due to the reported increase in accidental overdoses
Vol. II, No. 6 - June 2012
  • The five-part series "Tales from the Trenches in the War on Pain"
  • Motor control in CRPS
  • Sensory signs in CRPS
  • SCS in CRPS 1 of less than a year's duration
  • Anxiety is a risk factor in developing CRPS
  • Perceptual problems in CRPS patients
  • Crackdown on prescription drugs is fueling heroin abuse and addiction
Vol. II, No. 5 - May 2012
  • Fallacies of Evidence in Pain Research
  • Is Misuse of Meds by Pain Patients Rampant?
  • Sad News: American Pain Foundation Closes Down
  • Pharmacodynamic analysis of the analgesic effect of capsaicin
  • Craving of Prescription Opioids in Patients With Chronic Pain
  • Opioid rotation with extended-release opioids
  • Controlled release formulation of oxycodone in patients with chronic osteoarthritis
Vol. II, No. 4 - April 2012
  • A new theory as to why chronic pain stays chronic
  • A physician survey to see if their own biases might affect their CRPS diagnoses
  • Excellent review of upper extremity CRPS
  • A large review of neuropathic pain Tx performed with cancer patients
  • New, very accurate diagnostic technique using body-generated infrared radiation
  • CDC Survey showing lives saved with community naloxone distribution
Vol. II, No. 3 - March 2012
  • Obesity and Pain Are Associated in the United States
  • A 6-pg newsletter on ketamine therapy, in the Pain Clinical Updates series
  • Sensory Pain Qualities in Neuropathic Pain
  • Subanesthetic Ketamine Infusion Therapy: A Novel Therapeutic Approach to CRPS
  • Noninvasive central lateral thalamotomy for chronic neuropathic pain
  • Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I in Upper Extremity
  • Acupuncture May have Higher Treatment Response Rate to Steroid Injection
  • Cannabinoid-opioid interactions & synergism
  • Erasing pain memory traces with high-dose opioid
  • Relationship between obesity and chronic pain confirmed
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy for refractory CRPS?
  • Pain Management in the Elderly - a two-part article
  • Pain product announcements and warnings
Vol. II, No. 1 - January 2012
  • Pain product announcements and warnings
  • Treatment comparison for neck pain
  • Harms associated with epidural steroid injections
  • Trial of acupuncture for chronic pain relief
  • Opioids for chronic abdominal pain?
  • Fibromyalgia linked to vitamin D deficiencies
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Vol. I, No. 6 - December 2011
  • Signs of acetaminophen overdose
  • Use of Narcan® for narcotic overdoses
  • Prevalence of chronic pain
  • Great pocket guide to pain management
  • Review of continuous nerve blocks
Vol. I, No. 5 - November 2011
  • Association between exercise and chronic pain
  • Myths about high-dose opioids and death
  • "Relieving Pain in America" - summary of huge IOM report
  • Resource Guide for People with Pain
  • Specific ion channels implicated in CRPS pain maintenance
Vol. I, No. 4 - October 2011
  • Do opioids increase the risk of pneumonia?
  • Impact of comorbid illnesses on chronic pain
  • Opioid risk management
  • Naloxone (Narcan®) for reversing opioid overuse
  • Discovered: A gene that regulates chronic pain
  • Suicide risk factors for chronic pain patients
Vol. I, No. 3 - September 2011
  • Definitive Definition of Addiction
  • Outcomes of long-term SCS therapy
  • SCS is Effective for CRPS I: Fact or Fiction?
  • Cervical Spinal Cord Tumor Causing CRPS
  • Unexpected psychiatric symptoms from ketamine therapy
  • Indications that CRPS spreading is not at all random
  • Abuse-resistant Painkillers
  • Biopsychosocial Factors Affecting Pain
  • CRPS1 in a Child With Migraine
  • Drug–Drug Interactions
  • Accidental Opioid Death
  • Computed tomography-guided catheter implantation
Vol. I, No. 1 - July 2011
  • ''Pain Exposure'' Physical Therapy
  • CRPS - What's In A Name?
  • Visual Stimuli Increase CRPS Symptoms
  • Scoring System, Motor Cortex Stimulation
  • Interaction of Sensory and Motor Signs
  • Mirror Therapy
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