The RSD/CRPS Library

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Cannabinoids [to top]

There are few sites that both summarize the cannabis situation and also feature copious links to outside sources; IMO the best is the famous Erowid site. Here are the links for the Erowid main cannabis section, drug testing, and medical marijuana.

There is also a great section called Chronic Pain and Medical Marijuana, on the site Americans for Safe Access (ASA). ASA is "the largest organization of patients, medical professionals, scientists and concerned citizens promoting safe and legal access to cannabis."

General articles/Reviews
Granny Storm Crow's List -- one of the best and most complete lists I've ever seen on the medical interactions of various illnesses with CRPS.
Cannabinergic Pain Medicine Clin. J. Pain 2013, 29, 162
Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2)-selective N-aryl-oxadiazolyl-propionamides:... Org. Med. Chem. Lett. 2012, 2, 32
Cannabis News Newsletter, "informing the public about cannabis" http://cannabisnews.com/
Cannabis Use in the United States: Implications for Policy - 99pp http://www.cedro-uva.org/lib/harrison.cannabis.pdf
The Cannabis-Psychosis Link Psychiatric Times, Jan 12, 2012, 1.
Confirmation that the AKT1 (rs2494732) Genotype Influences the Risk of Psychosis in Cannabis Users Biol. Psych. 2012, 72, 811
Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: a brief review Brit. J Psychiatry 2001, 178, 101
Pharmacology and Toxicology of Major Constituents of Marijuana — On the Metabolic Activation of Cannabinoids and Its Mechanism J. Toxicol. 2003, 22, 577
Medicinal uses
The excellent ProCon site just published a summary of 105 peer-reviewed studies of marijuana (1990-2012) as a therapeutic agent.
Americans for Safe Access "the largest organization of patients, medical professionals, scientists and concerned citizens promoting safe and legal access to cannabis." http://americansforsafeaccess.org/
A molecular basis of the therapeutic and psychoactive properties of marijuana (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) Prog. Neuropsychopharm &
Biol. Psych.
2002, 26, 721
Association Between Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Function Over 20 Years JAMA 2012, 307, 173
Blockade of Endocannabinoid-Degrading Enzymes Attenuates Neuropathic Pain JPET 2009, 330, 902
Cannabinoids and cancer: causation, remediation, and palliation Lancet Oncol. 2005, 6, 35
Medical Marijuana: Regulations Surrounding Its Use Psych. Times 2012
Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb Trends Pharm. Sci., in press.
Pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids Anesthesia 2001, 56, 1059
Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in CNS Disease CNS Drugs 2003, 17, 179
Etiology (how it works in the body)
Amygdala activity contributes to the dissociative effect of cannabis on pain perception Pain 2013, 154, 124
Role of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the development of joint pain induced by monosodium iodoacetate Pain 2013, 154, 160
Analysis/Measurement/Detection
High-throughput toxicological analysis of Δ9-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-THC by LC/MS/MS Rom. J. Leg. Med. 2010, 2, 133
Lowering cutoffs for initial and confirmation testing for cocaine and marijuana: large-scale study of effects on the rates of drug-positive results Clin. Chem. 1997, 43, 100
Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study About the Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on the Pharmacokinetics of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Ther. Drug Monit. 2005, 27, 799
Review of Biologic Matrices (Urine, Blood, Hair) as Indicators of Recent or Ongoing Cannabis Use (Review) Ther. Drug Monit. 2006, 28, 155
Unexpected interference of baby wash products with a cannabinoid (THC) immunoassay Clin. Biochem. 2012, 45, 605
Pharmacokinetics (PK)/Pharmacodynamics (PD)
Association Between Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Function Over 20 Years JAMA 2012, 307, 173
Cannabinoid–Opioid Interaction in Chronic Pain Nature 2011, 90, 844
CYP2C-catalyzed Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolism: Kinetics, pharmacogenetics and interaction with phenytoin Biochem. Pharmacol. 2005, 70, 1096
Erasure of a Spinal Memory Trace of Pain by a Brief, High-Dose Opioid Administration Science 2012, 335, 235
Human Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics (Review) (35 pp) Chem. & Biodivers. 2007, 4, 1770
Differentiating new cannabis use from residual urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic, daily cannabis users Addiction 2011, 106, 499
Extended urinary Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure Drug Alc. Depend. 2009, 105, 24
Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Δ9-THC and other Cannabinoids with Emphasis on Man (23 pp) Pharm. Reviews 1986, 38, 21x
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids (34 pp) Clin. Pharmacokinet. 2003, 42, 327
Plasma and urine profiles of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes Anal. Biochem. Chem. 2010, 396, 2493
Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol Study III. A Δ9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study From Forensic Sci. Internat.: Predictive model accuracy in estimating last Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC, 2003
Pharmacogenetics/Pharmacogenomics
The Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase C385A (P129T) Missense Variant in Cannabis Users Am. J. Med. Genetics 2007, 144B, 660
Meta-analysis of cannabinoid ligand binding affinity and receptor distribution: interspecies differences Brit. J. of Pharmacol. 2007, 152, 583
Randomized pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic trial of dronabinol effects on colon transit in irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2012, 24, 358
"Bath Salts"; imitation cannabis currently available
I sincerely doubt that many readers of this site are even tempted to try one of the currently-available "imitation" cannabis products, sold under various names and for various purposes, and against which law enforcement is passing laws with great speed. They have already been classified in C-I by the DEA. Still, I know how desperate under- or unmedicated CRPS patients can get, so I'm including a few papers showing how dangerous these unanalyzed, untested materials are.
Cognitive and subjective effects of mephedrone and factors influencing use of a ‘new legal high’ Addiction 2012, 107, 792
CP47,497-C8 and JWH073, commonly found in‘Spice’ herbal blends, are potent and efficacious CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2011, 659, 139
Mephedrone, compared with MDMA (ecstasy) and amphetamine, rapidly increases both dopamine and 5-HT levels in nucleus accumbens of awake rats Brit. J. Pharmacol. 2011, 164, 1949
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; ‘meow meow’): chemical, pharmacological and clinical issues - good, 11-pg review Psychopharmacol. 2011, 214, 593
Central Sensitization [to top]
AMPA receptor trafficking in inflammation-induced dorsal horn central sensitization Neurosci. Bull. 2012, 28, 111
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Promotes Cellular Changes in Trigeminal Neurons and Glia Implicated in Peripheral and Central Sensitization Mol. Pain 2011, 7, 94
Central processing of tactile and nociceptive stimuli in complex regional pain syndrome Clin. Neurophys. 2008, 119, 2380
Central Sensitization: A Generator of Pain Hypersensitivity by Central Neural Plasticity - NICE REVIEW J. Pain 2009, 10, 895
Central sensitization: Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain Pain 2011, 152, S2
CENTRAL SENSITIZATION OF NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS IN RAT MEDULLARY DORSAL HORN INVOLVES PURINERGIC P2X7 RECEPTORS Neurosci. 2011, 192, 721
Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Mounting Pathophysiologic Evidence to Link Fibromyalgia with Other Common Chronic Pain Disorders Pain Mngmt. Nursing 2011, 12, 15
Chronic widespread pain in the spectrum of rheumatological diseases Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol. 2007, 21, 391
Cognitive correlates of ‘‘neglect-like syndrome’’ in patients with complex regional pain syndrome Pain 2012, 153, 1063
Contribution of microglia and astrocytes to the central sensitization, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the juvenile rat Mol. Pain 2012, 8, 43
The Development and Psychometric Validation of the Central Sensitization Inventory Pain Practice 2011, 12, 276
Diagnosis of Altered Central Pain Processing Spine 2011, 36, S200
Dissecting out mechanisms responsible for peripheral neuropathic pain: Implications for diagnosis and therapy Life Sci. 2004, 74, 2605
Effect of TENS on pain in relation to central sensitization in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial Trials 2012, 13, 21
Effects of Pregabalin on Central Sensitization in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis in a Randomized, Controlled Trial PLoSOne 2012, 7, 42096
Food hypersensitivity—immunologic (peripheral) or cognitive (central) sensitisation? Psychoneuroendocrin. 2005, 30, 983
Forebrain-mediated sensitization of central pain pathways: ‘non-specific’ pain and a new image for MT Manual Ther. 2002, 7, 80
In the mind or in the brain? Scientific evidence for central sensitization in chronic fatigue syndrome Eur Clin. Invest. 2012, 42, 203
Mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain: Part 1 of 3: Symptoms
and signs of central sensitization in patients with low back (+/- leg) pain
Manual Ther. 2012, 17, 336
Mechanisms of central sensitization, neuroimmunology & injury biomechanics in persistent pain: implications for musculoskeletal disorders J. Electromyog. Kines. 2004, 14, 87
Pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic musculoskeletal pain (fibromyalgia): the role of central and peripheral sensitization and pain disinhibition Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol. 2007, 21, 465
Patients initially diagnosed as ‘warm’ or ‘cold’ CRPS 1 show differences in central sensory processing some eight years after diagnosis: a quantitative sensory testing study Pain 2005, 115, 204
Peripheral and central mechanisms of visceral sensitization in man Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2007, 19, 29
Recognition of central sensitization in patients with musculoskeletal pain: Application of pain neurophysiology in manual therapy practice Manual Ther. 2010, 15, 135
Role of TNF-alpha during central sensitization in preclinical studies Neurol. Sci. 2011, 32, 757
Spinal and Supraspinal Contributions to Central Sensitization in Peripheral Neuropathy Neurosignals 2005, 14, 175
Understanding Fibromyalgia: Lessons from the Broader Pain Research Community J. Pain 2009, 10, 777
Children and CRPS [to top]
    For awhile, it was thought that children don't get CRPS; when this was disproven, it was assumed that when children did get CRPS, it was the same as the illness adults get. This over-simplification was exposed, and now it is clear that many variables separate the illness in adults vs. children.
A 2 1/2-year -old girl with reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (CRPS type I): case report Clin. Rehab. 2003, 17, 224
(The) biopsychosocial model - a tool for rheumatologists Baillière's Clin. Rheumatol. 2000, 14, 787
Case Series: IV Regional Anesthesia with Ketorolac and Lidocaine: Is It Effective for the Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 in Children and Adolescents? Anesth. Analg. 2003, 96, 694
Complex regional pain syndrome by vaccination: A case of complex regional pain syndrome after vaccination of influenza A (H1N1) Pedia. Internat. 2012, 54, e4
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children Sabine Kost-Byerly, M.D.
Complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents Eur. J. Pain. 2006, 10, 767
Complex regional pain syndromes in children and adolescents Pediatrics Internat. 2008, 50, 523
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes in Children and Adolescents Clin. J. Pain 2006, 22, 399
Complex regional pain syndrome type-1 after rubella vaccine Eur. J. Pain 2005, 9, 517
Computed tomography guided lumbar sympathetic block for complex regional pain syndrome in a child: A case report and review Eur. J. Pain 2006,10, 409
Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks at Home for Treatment of Recurrent CRPS I in Children Anesthesiology 2005, 102, 387
CRPS type I in children with mitochondrial disease and maternal inheritance Arch. Dis. Child. 2008, 93, 390
Cutaneous sensory abnormalities in children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndromes Pain 2007, 131, 153
(A) Day-hospital Approach to Treatment of Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Pain Med. 2010, 11, 1216
An Effective Treatment of Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 in a Child Using High Doses of Intrathecal Ziconotide J. Pain Sympt. Mngmt. 2006, 32, 509
Emotional and Neuropsychological Profiles of Children With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type-I in an Inpatient Rehabilitation Setting Clin. J. Pain 2011, 27, 27
Helping Children/Youth with RSD/CRPS Succeed in School - RSDSA pamphlet Produced by RSDSA
Increased Risk of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Siblings of Patients? J. Pain 2009, 10, 1250
Is Physiotherapy Effective for Children With CRPS Type 1? Clin. J. Pain 2012, 28, 81
Intrathecal Local Anesthetic Infusion as a Treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in a Child Anesth. Analg. 2007, 104, 1078
Lumbar Sympathetic Blockade in Children with Complex Regional Pain Syndromes Anesthesiology 2009, 111, 372
Morbidity in reflex sympathetic dystrophy Arch. Dis. Child. 2000, 82, 231
Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome J. Pediatr. Orthop. 2007, 27, 567
Perioperative Mortality Anesthesiology 2005, 102, 252
Plasticity of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) in Children Pain Med. 2010, 11, 1216
Please  don’t  hurt  me! A  plea  against  invasive  procedures in  children  and  adolescents  with  complex  regional  pain  syndrome (CRPS) a MUST READ!! Schmerz 2012, 26, 389
Quality of life in adults with childhood-onset of CRPS type I Injury Int. J. Care Injured 2009, 40, 901
Recurrent and migratory reflex sympathetic dystrophy in children Pediatr. Rehab. 2001, 4, 87
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy in Children J. Bone & Joint Surg. 1992, 74A, 910
Ketamine [to top]
    Ketamine is the prototypical member of a class of bioactive molecules which block the receptor for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), resulting in a number of physiological actions. These so-called "NMDA receptor antagonists" are covered in their own section on page 4.
NOTE: The section at the bottom covers a single issue of an important journal's June 2013 issue, dedicated solely to ketamine research.
Anesthetic Technique of Ketamine Infusion: Clinical and Biochemical Evaluation J. Postgrad. Med. 1982, 28, 184
Complete Recovery From Intractable CRPS-Type I, Following Anesthetic Ketamine and Midazolam Pain Pract. 2007, 7, 147
Effect of ‘chronic’ versus ‘acute’ ketamine administration and its ‘withdrawal’ effect on behavioural alterations in mice: Implications for experimental psychosis Behav. Brain Res. 2011, 216, 247
Effects of intravenous, low-dose ketamine-diazepam sedation on the results of hematologic, plasma biochemical, and coagulation analyses in cats JAMA 2012, 240, 287
Efficacy of Ketamine in Anesthetic Dosage for the Treatment of Refractory Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Open-Label Phase II Study
Pain Med. 2008, 9, 1173
Efficacy of Outpatient Ketamine Infusions in Refractory Chronic Pain Syndromes: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis Pain Med. 2012, 13, 263
INFLUENCE OF KETAMINE ON THE ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF THE AGONIST-ANTAGONIST OPIOIDS Pharm. Res. 1992, 25, 249
Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain J. Neuroinflamm. 2011, 8, 6
An Intravenous Ketamine Test as a Predictive Response Tool in Opioid-Exposed Patients with Persistent Pain J. Pain Sympt. Mngmt. 2009, 37, 698
Ketamine and chronic pain – Going the distance Pain 2009, 145, 271
Ketamine for pædiatric sedation/analgesia in the emergency department Emerg. Med. 2004, 21, 275
Non-opioid IV adjuvants in the perioperative period: Pharmacological and clinical aspects of ketamine and gabapentinoids Pharm. Res. 2012, 65, 411
On the Safety and Benefits of Repeated Intravenous Injections of Ketamine For Depression Biol. Psych. 2012, 72, e11
Outpatient intravenous ketamine for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: A double-blind placebo controlled study Pain 2009, 147, 107
Population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modeling of ketamine-induced pain relief of chronic pain Eur. J. Pain 2011, 15,258
Subanesthetic Ketamine Infusion Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of a Novel Therapeutic Approach to CRPS Pain Med. 2004, 5, 263
SYNTHETIC OPIOIDS COMPARED WITH MORPHINE AND KETAMINE: CATALEPSY, CROSS-TOLERANCE AND INTERACTIONS IN THE RAT Neuropharm. 1989, 28, 1011
The use of ketamine in complex regional pain syndrome: possible mechanisms Expt. Rev. Neurotherap. 2011, 11, 719
The following articles are from CNS Neuroscience & Therapy, in the June 2013 issue, which was dedicated to articles on ketamine. You can see that not every article addresses pain control, but this is an indication of the current rapid pace of research on ketamine and its actions in diverse parts of the body.
NOTE: These are all review articles, meaning that they summarize the state of current knowledge - extremely useful!
Happy 50th Anniversary Ketamine - 1pg CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 369
The Emerging Use of Ketamine for Anesthesia and Sedation in Traumatic Brain Injuries - 6pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 390
From “Special K” to “Special M”: The Evolution of the Recreational Use of Ketamine and Methoxetamine - 7pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 454
Ketamine as a Fast Acting Antidepressant: Current Knowledge and Open Questions - 9pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 428
Ketamine in Pain Management - 7pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 396
Ketamine and Peripheral Inflammation - 8pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 403
Ketamine Pharmacology: An Update (Pharmacodynamics and Molecular Aspects, Recent Findings) - 11pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 370
Ketamine: Use in Anesthesia - 9pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 381
Preclinical Assessment of Ketamine - 6pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 448
Treatment of Status Epilepticus with Ketamine, Are we There yet? - 17pp CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2013, 19, 411
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